Knowledge Base

This is the official Knowledge Base created by okinesio Labs.
Here you find useful information about our development process as well as content about our experience during the project.

As the title suggests, this is a loose collection of resources, articles and links that might be interesting.
We are not responsible for content of external sites.

Guide for practical electronics



Hardware Design should be free

Build It. Share It. Profit. Can Open Source Hardware Work?


Producing / Selling

How to turn an Arduino-based proof of concept into a final prototype

From Prototype to Kickstarter to Production: How blink(1) was made

via Sparkfun (Producing and/or Selling)

via Seeestudio



Compatible licenses with GPL


Low Power

Good resource for low power practice

Adventures in Low Power Land (reducing power step-by-step)

General information about sleep modes (German)

Innovative Techniques for Extremely Low Power Consumption with 8-bit Microcontrollers


Measure Battery Level

Secret Arduino Voltmeter – Measure Battery Voltage (fast & w/out any external components)

What if we want to know the battery state?

Measuring Battery Capacity With an Arduino


Crystals, Resonators & Oscillators

Notable Guide about Crystal oscillators (recommended)

Best practices for PCB layouts of oscillators

General information about Oscillators

Guide for choosing the right caps for a quartz crystal

Short insight about Cstray and Caps (Answer on StackExchange)

FAQ about Oscillators

Using a Crystal Resonator with a Microcontroller

Good information sheet about oscillators

Detailed article about crystal design

Forum post about crystals

Internal clock on Atmel microcontrollers

AVR053: Calibration of the internal RC oscillator



SPI protocol

I2C protocol



General information about Bootloader & Arduino

Information uploading a Bootloader via Arduino

DFU Programming and uploading firmware with Arduino

Programming ATMEGA32U4 through USB

ATMEL USB DFU Bootloader (Datasheet)

USB Bootloader (AVRUSBBoot)


ISP programming

AVR Fuse Calculator

Avrdude commands / overview

Example process avrdude

Hint: Other wires on ISP could loading down the signals

AVR910 (Page 3) > add pull-up resistors if lines are used by SPI devices

AVR042 (Page 7) > information about using pull-ups when using ISP and SPI devices

Further information about pull-up resistors when using SPI


Solder Technics

Solder QFN/SMD-Packages (for Demonstration/Know How)

Reflow Process



Basics about diodes

Differences between different descriptions on oscillators

Capacitors: Read the datasheet. As the capacity can massively drop when temperature rises

Further information about DC Bias characteristics

Video describing DC Bias characteristics and how to minimize capacity loss

Does capacitor size matter

Low forward voltage Schottky Diode (application note)

Difference between different types of diodes

Diode ratings explained